[In a new LA Film School -sponsored Game Career Guide feature, faculty member Michael Dawson discusses great entry paths into elementary game design, from paper designing to simple 2D game creation tools.]
As someone who has designed computer and video games, I often receive email from aspiring designers who don't know where to start on their journey.
Many think that in order to design games they need a PhD in Computer Science, a mastery of computer art, and a team of one hundred game developers at their disposal.
These misconceptions are simply untrue. The fact is, you can start to build some of the key skills it takes to be a successful game designer right now - and you can probably do it with what you have on your desk and in your closet.
If you ask two game developers what a game designer does, you'll likely get three different answers. So while the issue can be of great debate, I'll define what a game designer does simply as the act of communicating how a game should work. There are a number of different game components that a designer must consider when describing how a game works. These include:
- Mechanics - rules and procedures; when followed, they produce what most people call "gameplay"
- Story - dramatic elements that usually provide a rationale for the mechanics, but are not part of the mechanics themselves
- Aesthetics - visual, aural, and tactile manifestations of a game; what you see, hear, and touch
As a concrete example, take the classic computer game Doom. The aesthetics of the game center on a world presented in 3D graphics and seen from a first person point of view. The story of the game revolves around the player character of a space marine who must single-handedly stop hordes of demons flowing out of a gateway before they reach earth. The key mechanic of the game involves shooting enemies while acquiring more powerful weapons to match the growing strength of the enemies.
Of course, these three game components usually intertwine. For example, one of the aesthetic elements of Doom is that the grunts and groans of approaching enemies are heard in stereo. This aesthetic element affects the mechanic of shooting since hearing an enemy in stereo allows a player to better estimate an enemy's position.
As a new designer, it's probably simplest to work with one game component at a time. And since mechanics are arguably the essence of a game, I'll focus on that component.
If you want to learn computer and video game design, what should you do? Break out the Parcheesi, of course. Yes, analog games - non-digital games, played with materials like boards, cards, dice, pencils, and paper - can provide terrific learning opportunities for computer and video game designers. By working with these kinds of games, a designer isn't limited by technology. There's no need to worry about whether or not you have the latest hardware. You aren't restricted in your designs because you don't know how to program. Your game isn't put on hold because you're not an expert game artist or an audio guru. In short, working with analog games takes away the excuses for a designer and asks him or her to simply design.
Here are three specific analog game design exercises you can use to hone your skills in developing and modifying game mechanics:
- Add Chance to a Game. Pick a game that has no element of chance and add it. You can add chance to a game through dice rolls, card selections, and random starting conditions, to name just a few methods.
- Eliminate Perfect Information from a Game. A game of perfect information is a game where each player is completely aware of all previous moves; it generally implies that there is no hidden information in the game. For example, chess is a game of perfect information since both players can see where every piece is on the board at all times. However, the five card draw variant of poker is a game of imperfect information since players don't know what cards other players hold.
- Modify a Board Game. This time, the change is up to you. Take an existing board game and add or modify a single game mechanic. Be careful to focus on a mechanic rather than the aesthetics or story of the game.
Make sure to put your games through playtesting, a process where a game is played and evaluated. Be honest with yourself about whether your modifications were successful. If they weren't, go back to the drawing board and try again.